Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: something should be known.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable disease, manifested by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway abnormalities and often caused by alveolar significant exposure to particulates or toxic gases and the influence of host factors including abnormal lung development. Comorbidities can affect morbidity and mortality.
According to the World Health Organization, more than 600 million people worldwide suffer from COPD, more than 3 million people die each year, previously the fourth-leading cause of death in the world after coronary heart disease, cancer and stroke, by 2020, it is the third leading cause of death.
COPD is an economic and social burden.
The prevalence of COPD of grade 2 or higher was 10.1%, in which it was 11.85% for men and 8.5% for women. The incidence of COPD in people who never smoke is 3.11%.
2. Risk factors.
- 2.1 Commonly in men over 40 years old.
- 2.2. People smoking cigarettes: is closely related to COPD, which may be due to genetic factors. Not all smokers suffer from COPD, about 15-20% of smokers suffer from COPD, 85-90% of patients with COPD are caused by smoking. Waterpipe smokers may also have COPD. Passive exposure to smoke also contributes to COPD.
- 2.3. Dust and occupational chemicals such as steam, irritants, smoke.
- 2.4. Pollution of the outside environment such as air pollution, pollution of indoor environment such as fuel, cooking fuels and heat.
- 2.5. Respiratory infections in adolescence.
- 2.6. Socio-economic status.
3. Clinical manifestations
- 3.1. A chronic cough is the first symptom of COPD,
- 3.2. Sputum in small quantities, sticky sputum.
- 3.3 Persistent shortness of breath is an important symptom.
4. The gold standard for diagnosing COPD is to measure respiratory function by respiratory.
5. Progression of the disease: the disease may progress to worsening heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, diabetes type 2, thinning, osteoporosis.
6. Advices for patients with COPD:
- 6.1. Quitting smoking and pipe tobacco is the most important feature, avoiding exposure to environmental pollution. Avoiding to contact with smokers and smoke.
- 6.2. Should see your doctor immediately if you have sympton of shortness of breath increases with exertion. In the stable period, drug therapy (usually inhaled) must be properly and at the right time under the guidance of a physician, which can reduce symptoms, reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and improve health status and exercise tolerance.
- 6.3. Be hospitalized for acute obstructive pulmonary exacerbations such as high fever, increased dyspnea, increased coughing up sputum –sputum is yellow as pus,lips and extremities cyanosis, rapid pulse, unresponsive to daily medication.
- 6.4. Having flu vaccination reduces the frequency of lower respiratory infections.
- 6.5. Having Pneumococcal vaccination reduces the frequency of lower respiratory tract infections.
- 6.6. Respiratory recovery improves symptoms, improves quality of life, combine with regular exercise such as walking 30 minutes per day. Good sleep and adequate nutrition.
- 6.7. In case of serious illness, should live happily and optimistically.
- 6.8. Join a COPD club (if have) to get regular disease education.
- 6.9. The elderly should pay attention to the most important comorbidities are cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure followed by diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, etc.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Le Van Bang
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